The rugged Western Ghats make it an ideal haven for many species of birds and animals and also provide a corridor for migration. The Western Ghats called the Sahyadris in Goa; extend for a total of 600 kilometers in Goa of their total length of 3702 kilometers.
The widest belt of forests along the Western Ghats is in Goa and neighbouring Karnataka state. The high rainfall accounts for this because the elevation of the mountain range here is lower.
The coastal areas on the other hand, provide the tropical backdrop. There are several plants and trees unique to Goa and some introduced by the Portuguese, most famous of which is the green Chilies, which today has become an essential ingredient in the Indian Curry.
The tropical location of Goa is responsible for its warm humid climate and laterite and lateritic Clayey-loamy soil. The mean temperature even in the coldest month is over 20 degrees centigrade.
Average rainfall is over 500mm along the Western Ghats and a little less elsewhere. The length of the dry season averages from 5 to 6 months. For all these reasons, the dominant vegetation is of the moist deciduous type.
Goa is endowed with over 1512 documented species of plants, over 275 genera of birds, over 48 genera of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles.
About 10% of Goa is set aside as wildlife reserve and this area include four large wildlife sanctuaries.